Who Funded That? The Names and Numbers Behind the Research in Our Latest Issue

This list includes studies cited in our pages that received funding from a source other than the researchers’ home institutions. Only principal or corresponding authors are listed.
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Aerial photo of the National Institutes of Health. (Photo: Public Domain)

Aerial photo of the National Institutes of Health. (Photo: Public Domain)

SINCE WE LAST SPOKE
ITEM: The world’s population of whales may soon produce enough iron-rich fecal plumes to increase productivity in fisheries worldwide.
STUDY: “Whales as Marine Ecosystem Engineers,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, June 2014
AUTHOR: Joe Roman, Gund Institute for Ecological Economics, University of Vermont
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Gund Institute for Ecological Economics, United States Marine Mammal Commission, Fulbright Scholar Program, Duke University Marine Lab, Pew Charitable Trusts

QUICK STUDIES
ITEM: Taxing carbon dioxide emissions can actually work.
STUDY: “The Impact of a Carbon Tax on Manufacturing: Evidence From Microdata,” Journal of Public Economics, September 2014
AUTHOR: Ralf Martin, Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London
OUTSIDE FUNDING: United Kingdom’s Economic and Social Research Council, Anglo-German Foundation, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Spain’s Ministry for Science and Innovation

ITEM: Public school students in North Carolina who gain their first regular access to a home computer between the fifth
 and eighth grades tend to witness a persistent decline in reading and math test scores.
STUDY: “Scaling the Digital Divide: Home Computer Technology and Student Achievement,” Economic Inquiry, July 2014
AUTHOR: Jacob Vigdor, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: William T. Grant Foundation, National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Department of Education grant to the Urban Institute

FIVE STUDIES
ITEM: Twenty-eight percent of Taiwanese eighth and ninth graders who take the PISA math test earn scores that place them at accomplished level while only about six percent of U.S. eighth and ninth graders do.
STUDY: “Not Just the Problems of Other People’s Children: U.S. Student Performance in Global Perspective,” Education Next, May 2013
AUTHOR: Eric A. Hanushek, Kennedy School, Harvard University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Kern Family Foundation, Searle Liberty Trust

ITEM: Breast development is now happening on average at age 8.8 for African American girls, 9.3 for Hispanic girls, and 9.7 for white and Asian girls.
STUDY: “Onset of Breast Development in a Longitudinal Cohort,” Pediatrics, November 2013
AUTHOR: Frank M. Biro, director of Adolescent and Transition Medicine Research, Cincinnati Children’s Medical Center
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Avon Foundation

ITEM: Middle school teachers are more likely to be teaching outside their field of expertise, and many see middle school as a stepping-stone to other placements.
STUDY: “Who Stays and Who Leaves? Findings From a Three-Part Study of Teacher
Turnover in NYC Middle Schools,” Research Alliance for New York City Schools, March 2013
AUTHOR: William H. Marinell, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Ford Foundation, United States Department of Education, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Robertson Foundation

ITEM: Non-cognitive skills like perseverance and future-orientation are more important than raw IQ in determining adult success.
STUDY: “Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, July 2007
AUTHOR: Angela L. Duckworth, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Science Foundation, John Templeton Foundation

"GRANDPA, I'M IN TROUBLE..."
ITEM: The total loss to financial fraud was about $2.92 billion a year in the U.S. in 2005.
STUDY: “The Scope of the Problem: An Overview of Fraud Prevalence Measurement,” Financial Fraud Research Center, 2013
AUTHOR: Martha Deevy, director, Financial Fraud Research Center, Stanford University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority Investor Education Foundation

A FEELING OF CONTROL
ITEM: The Marshmallow Test
STUDY: “Cognitive and Attentional Mechanisms in Delay of Gratification,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, February 1972
AUTHOR: Walter Mischel, Department of Psychology, Columbia University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institutes of Health

ITEM: Children who had possessed the self-control to resist taking the first marshmallow followed very different trajectories.
STUDY: “Predicting Adolescent Cognitive and Self-Regulatory Competencies From Preschool Delay of Gratification: Identifying Diagnostic Conditions,” Developmental Psychology, November 1990
AUTHOR: Walter Mischel, Department of Psychology, Columbia University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health

ITEM: A lack of self-regulation is a key contributing factor to societal ills ranging from insufficient savings, to obesity, to falling test scores and declining productivity.
STUDY: “What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades,” Journal of Educational Psychology, May 2011
AUTHOR: Angela Duckworth, Positive Psychology Center, University of Pennsylvania
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institute on Aging, United States Department of Education

ITEM: When people avoid eating chocolate chip cookies placed in front of them by using sheer determination and willpower, they become much more likely to give in to the temptation to shirk on difficult tasks a few minutes later.
STUDY: “Ego Depletion: Is the Active Self a Limited Resource?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, May 1998
AUTHOR: Roy Baumeister, Department of Psychology, Florida State University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institutes of Health

ITEM: The brains of addicts, as some suggest, aren’t like those of more normal people.
STUDY: “Abnormal Brain Structure Implicated in Stimulant Drug Addiction,” Science, February 2012
AUTHOR: Karen Ersche, Department of Neuroscience, University of Cambridge
OUTSIDE FUNDING: United Kingdom Medical Research Council, The Wellcome Trust

ITEM: Limbic systems of the brain—areas thought to involve emotion—devalue future rewards.
STUDY: “Separate Neural Systems Value Immediate and Delayed Monetary Rewards,” Science, October 2004
AUTHOR: Samuel McClure, Department of Psychology, Princeton University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, National Science Foundation

ITEM: Children with a greater ability to delay gratification at four years of age were the ones who possessed more genuine and solid close relationships many years later.
STUDY: “Delay of Gratification: Some Longitudinal Personality Correlates,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, June 1983
AUTHOR: David Funder, Department of Psychology and Social Relations, Harvard University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health

ITEM: An adult version of the marshmallow experiment
STUDY: “Gratitude: A Tool for Reducing Economic Impatience,” Psychological Science, April 2014
AUTHOR: David DeSteno, Department of Psychology, Northeastern University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Science Foundation, a Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Fellowship

ITEM: Suppressing emotions wreaks havoc on the mind and body.
STUDY: “Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences,” Psychophysiology, November 2002
AUTHOR: James Gross, Department of Psychology, Stanford University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health, National Science Foundation

ITEM: Assigning research participants to keep gratitude diaries over several weeks enhanced both their physical and mental well-being.
STUDY: “Counting Blessings Versus Burdens: An Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Daily Life,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, February 2003
AUTHOR: Robert Emmons, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis
OUTSIDE FUNDING: John Templeton Foundation

ITEM: Seemingly irrelevant factors like being at home versus at work, or even the need to make simple decisions unrelated to resisting temptation (“Should I wear a white shirt or a blue one?”) can diminish self-control.
STUDY: “Making Choices Impairs Subsequent Self-Control: A Limited-Resource Account of Decision Making, Self-Regulation, and Active Initiative,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, May 2008
AUTHOR: Kathleen Vohs, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Canada Research Chair Council

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Sep/Oct 2014

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