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Who Funded That? The Names and Numbers Behind the Research in Our Latest Issue

This list includes studies cited in our pages that received funding from a source other than the researchers’ home institutions. Only principal or corresponding authors are listed.
National Geographic Society's administration building in Washington, D.C. (Photo: AgnosticPreachersKid/Wikimedia Commons)

National Geographic Society's administration building in Washington, D.C. (Photo: AgnosticPreachersKid/Wikimedia Commons)


ITEM: Culture is not uniquely human—decades of research indicates social learning among animals. For example, whale pods in different parts of the world have developed regional singing styles.
STUDY: The Cultural Lives of Whales and Dolphins, University of Chicago Press, December 2014
AUTHOR: Hal Whitehead, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Geographic Society

ITEM: The feasibility of releasing gases or particles into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight.
STUDY: “Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth,” National Academies Press, February 2015
AUTHOR: A consortium of scientists for the National Research Council
OUTSIDE FUNDING: United States Intelligence Community, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy


ITEM: Musical training early in life may offset decreased neural inhibition later in life.
STUDY: “Musical Training Orchestrates Coordinated Neuroplasticity in Auditory Brainstem and Cortex to Counteract Age-Related Declines in Categorical Vowel Perception,” the Journal of Neuroscience, January 2015
AUTHOR: Gavin M. Bidelman, Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Memphis
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Grammy Foundation


ITEM: Among children younger than six years old, there are 914 Indian girls for every 1,000 Indian boys, the lowest ratio in over 60 years.
STUDY: “Trends in Selective Abortions of Girls in India: Analysis of Nationally Representative Birth Histories From 1990 to 2005 and Census Data From 1991 to 2011,” the Lancet, June 2011
AUTHOR: Prabhat Jha, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
OUTSIDE FUNDING: United States National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institute of Health Research, International Development Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute


ITEM: Trafficking is probably less about sex than we think.
STUDY: “Policing Human Trafficking: Cultural Blinders and Organizational Barriers,” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2014
AUTHOR: Amy Farrell, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Northeastern University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Institute of Justice

Pacific Standard, May/June 2015.

Pacific Standard, May/June 2015.

ITEM: Trafficking of minors isn’t always abusive.
STUDY: “Teenage Labor Migration and Anti-Trafficking Policy in West Africa,” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2014
AUTHOR: Neil Howard, Migration Policy Center, European University Institute
OUTSIDE FUNDING: The Economic and Social Research Council

ITEM: Human trafficking isn’t necessarily a very organized crime.
STUDY: “Human Trafficking and Moral Panic in Cambodia,” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2014
AUTHOR: Chenda Keo, Regulatory Institutions Network, Australian National University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Australian Research Council Relationships between pimps and prostitutes may not be all bad.

ITEM: Relationships between pimps and prostitutes may not be all bad.
STUDY: “Conflict and Agency Among Sex Workers and Pimps: A Closer Look at Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking,” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2014
AUTHOR: Anthony Marcus, Department of Anthropology, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S., Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, CUNY Graduate Center

ITEM: Trafficking can hide in plain sight.
STUDY: “Labor Migration and Trafficking Among Vietnamese Migrants in Asia,” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2014
AUTHOR: Danièle Bélanger, Department of Geography, Laval University
OUTSIDE FUNDING: International Research Development Agency of Canada, Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada


ITEM: In 2014, farmers left roughly five percent of California’s irrigated cropland unplanted, resulting in 17,100 fewer seasonal jobs than the year before, and $800 million in crop revenue losses for the state.
STUDY: “Economic Analysis of the 2014 Drought for California Agriculture,” Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California-Davis, July 2014
AUTHOR: Daniel Sumner, Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California-Davis
OUTSIDE FUNDING: California Department of Food and Agriculture


ITEM: Whenever managers within an industry were paid well, the janitors were almost always paid well, too.
STUDY: “Inter-Industry Wage Differences and Theories of Wage Determination,” National Bureau of Economic Research working paper, June 1987

AUTHOR: William Dickens, Department of Economics, University of California-Berkeley
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Science Foundation

ITEM: When a member of a workplace duo feels short-changed relative to the other, the team’s overall productivity falls by more than if both workers have their wages cut.
STUDY: “Social Comparison and Effort Provision: Evidence From a Field Experiment,” Journal of the European Economic Association, August 2014

AUTHOR: Alain Cohn, Department of Economics, University of Zurich
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Swiss National Science Foundation


ITEM: Only about a third of all drug courts permit participants to start maintenance as the treatment component of their program; “What Judges Allow” sidebar.
STUDY: “Medication Assisted Treatment in U.S. Drug Courts: Results From a Nationwide Survey of Availability, Barriers and Attitudes,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, May/June 2013
AUTHOR: Harlan Matusow, National Development and Research Institutes, New York
OUTSIDE FUNDING: American Association for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence, British health and hygiene product corporation Reckitt-Benckiser

ITEM: Sixty-four percent of drug court non-graduates were re-arrested within three years, whereas only 36 percent of graduates were. Among comparable defendants who did not participate in drug courts, just 44 percent were re-arrested in that period.
STUDY: “A Statewide Evaluation of New York’s Adult Drug Courts: Identifying Which Policies Work Best,” The Urban Institute and the Center for Court Innovation, June 2013
AUTHOR: Amanda B. Cissner, Center for Court Innovation
OUTSIDE FUNDING: United States Department of Justice

ITEM: “Who Goes to Drug Court?” sidebar.
STUDY: “Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States,” The National Drug Court Institute and the Bureau of Justice Assistance, July 2011
AUTHOR: West Huddleston, National Association of Drug Court Professionals
OUTSIDE FUNDING: White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, United States Department of Justice


ITEM: Over 70 percent of adults with severe intellectual disabilities live with family caregivers.
STUDY: “United States Living Arrangements of People With Intellectual and/or Developmental Disabilities in 1995,” Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, December 2005
AUTHOR: K. Charlie Lakin, Research and Training Center on Community Living, University of Minnesota
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Administration on Developmental Disabilities, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

ITEM: Between 1950 and 2011, the number of intellectually disabled Americans housed in large-scale mental health institutions fell from nearly 125,000 to under 30,000.
STUDY: “Residential Services for Persons With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Status and Trends Through Fiscal Year 2011,” Research & Training Center on Community Living, Institute on Community Integration, 2013
AUTHOR: Sheryl A. Larson, Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota
OUTSIDE FUNDING: Administration for Community Living of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research of the United States Department of Education


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