In 1940, just a year before Pearl Harbor plunged the United States into a world war, Walter and Cordelia Knott began construction on a notable addition to their thriving berry patch and chicken restaurant in the Orange County, California, city of Buena Park. This new venture was an Old West town celebrating both westward expansion and the California Dream—the notion that this Gold Rush state was a land of easy fortune for all. The Knotts' romanticized Ghost Town—including a saloon, blacksmith's shop, jail, and "Boot Hill" cemetery—became the cornerstone of the amusement park that is today Knott's Berry Farm.
While Ghost Town is arguably the first of its kind, since 1940 Old West theme parks have proliferated around the U.S. and the world. They're more than just destinations for pleasure seekers. Like Hollywood Westerns and dime novels, these theme parks propagate a particular myth of "the West." The relationship between history and entertainment is especially complex when these theme parks exist in California—a place that actually experienced "the Wild West." Visitors can have a hard time differentiating between fantasy landscapes and local history.
In studying California's Old West theme parks and their version of the state's past, I've conducted oral histories, visited these sites, and observed continued nostalgia for these places. What do these imagined spaces reveal about cultural conflicts of politics and regional identity in mid-century California? How do they demonstrate the attraction of a fantasy past that has captivated Californians?
Chicken With a Side of "Pioneer Spirit"
The addition of a Ghost Town may seem an odd choice for the Knotts, who were farmers and restaurateurs. But it was a calculated move to entertain guests waiting upwards of three hours in line for their chicken dinner—as well as to tell a particular story about the California Dream.
Walter Knott grew up listening to his grandmother's tales about traveling across the Mojave Desert to California in a covered wagon, with her young daughter (Walter's mother) in tow. Knott admired his grandmother's "pioneering spirit," which influenced his own decisions to homestead (unsuccessfully) in the desert. For Knott, his grandmother's account sparked ongoing admiration for independence and adventure, qualities that embody the myth of the West but not necessarily the realities of California's past.
And it was this personal connection to California's past that colored Knott's critique of his present. Looking back over the devastation the Great Depression wrought on California, the farmer—a lifelong proponent of free enterprise—concluded federal interference had prolonged the situation by offering aid and social welfare programs, instead of encouraging struggling residents to work harder.
This assessment ignores the fact that an agricultural hub like Orange County gained much from New Deal programs. The Agricultural Adjustment Act, for instance, offered farmers price support for their crops, which Orange County growers accepted.
Perpetuating the Myth of Rugged Individualism
But Knott remained steadfast. In an oral history from 1963, he explained:
"We felt that if [Ghost Town visitors] looked back, they would see the little that the pioneer people had to work with and all the struggles and problems that they had to overcome and that they'd all done it without any government aid."
This virulent independence shaped Ghost Town and ensured that Knott's Berry Farm's memorial to California history was a political statement as much as a place of leisure.
Beyond its political message about the past, Walter Knott wanted Ghost Town "to be an educational feature as well as a place of entertainment." Indeed, the first edition of the theme park's printed paper Ghost Town News in October of 1941 explained, "we hope it will prove of real tangible educational advantage and a lasting monument to California." By 1963, Knott asserted:
"I suppose there's hundreds of thousands of kids today that know what you mean when you say, 'pan gold.' I mean, when they read it in a book they understand it because they've gone down and actually done it [at Ghost Town]."
Indeed, the message reached generations of visitors.But Knott learned—and taught—the wrong lesson from the past. Certainly 19th-century Anglo pioneers faced financial, physical, and psychological challenges in reaching California. But these individuals did actually benefit from the "government aid" Knott scorned.
Federal funds and policies supported land grants in the West, a military to expand territory and fight indigenous peoples and even the development of the railroad that eventually connected California to the rest of the country. Government intervention helped support these Anglo pioneers as much as it did their Depression-era descendants.
Despite the fantasy past it represented, the premise of Ghost Town inspired local appreciation. Visitors to Knott's Berry Farm saw evidence of California's financial greatness when they panned for gold. Stories about the trials Walter Knott's own relatives faced crossing the Mojave Desert reinforced the fortitude of those who settled in the Golden State. Indeed, by mid-century many Orange County residents had themselves moved west to California and could well identify with the theme of 19th-century migration.
Ghost Town played on mid-20th-century nostalgia for simpler and more adventurous times in California, especially as the area began to rapidly shed its agricultural past in the years following World War II. The Knotts' nod to California's 19th-century history was a welcome distraction from the modernization efforts in Orange County's backyard.
The romantic and often whitewashed version of California's past embodied by Ghost Town played an ongoing role in shaping mid-century cultural and political identity in the region. The Knotts used the living they earned from Ghost Town and their other attractions to support conservative causes locally and nationally. In 1960, Ghost Town and the Old California it represented was the literal backdrop of a Richard Nixon rally during his first presidential run.
Later, fellow conservative and the Knotts' personal friend Ronald Reagan produced a segment about their attraction on his political radio show. On the July 15th, 1978, episode, Reagan said: "Walter Knott's farm is a classic American success story. ... And, it still reflects its founder's deep love and patriotism for his country." Reagan celebrated the theme park as the pinnacle of free enterprise and the California Dream.
Among California's Old West theme parks, Ghost Town at Knott's Berry Farm is not unique in tweaking the state's 19th-century past to more closely align with a Hollywood Western than the complex racial, cultural, and political reality. Today Ghost Town serves millions of domestic and foreign visitors annually and continues to sell a fantasy version of the Golden State's history. But this fantasy memorializes mid-20th-century conservative values rather than 19th-century California.
With renewed debates about public memory and monuments, it's more important than ever to examine sites like historical theme parks as places where individuals learn (false) history. These romantic and politicized versions of the Old West can leave visitors longing for a past that never was.