In August of 2002, interrogators at a secret Central Intelligence Agency-run prison in Thailand set out to break a Palestinian man they believed was one of al-Qaeda's top leaders.
As the CIA's video cameras rolled, security guards shackled Abu Zubaydah to a gurney and interrogators poured water over his mouth and nose until he began to suffocate. They slammed him against a wall, confined him for hours in a coffin-like box, and deprived him of sleep.
The 31-year-old Zubaydah begged for mercy, saying that he knew nothing about the terror group's future plans. The CIA official in charge, known in agency lingo as the "chief of base," mocked his complaints, accusing Zubaydah of faking symptoms of psychological breakdown. The torture continued.
When questions began to swirl about the Bush administration's use of the "black sites," and program of "enhanced interrogation," the chief of base began pushing to have the tapes destroyed. She accomplished her mission years later when she rose to a senior position at CIA headquarters and drafted an order to destroy the evidence, which was still locked in a CIA safe at the American embassy in Thailand. Her boss, the head of the agency's counterterrorism center, signed the order to feed the 92 tapes into a giant shredder.
By then, it was clear that CIA analysts were wrong when they had identified Zubaydah as the No. 3 or 4 in al-Qaeda after Osama bin Laden. The waterboarding failed to elicit valuable intelligence not because he was holding back, but because he was not a member of al-Qaeda, and had no knowledge of any plots against the United States.
The chief of base's role in this tale of pointless brutality and evidence destruction was a footnote to history—until earlier this month, when President Donald Trump named her deputy director of the CIA.
The choice of Gina Haspel for the second-highest position in the agency has been praised by colleagues but sharply criticized by two senators who have seen the still-classified records of her time in Thailand.
"Her background makes her unsuitable for the position," Senator Ron Wyden (D-Oregon) and Senator Martin Heinrich (D-New Mexico) wrote in a letter to Trump. "We are sending a classified letter explaining our position and urge that the information be immediately declassified."
That's not likely to happen. ProPublica has combed through recently declassified documents, including CIA cables and Zubaydah's own account of what he endured, and books by officials involved in the CIA's interrogation program to assemble the fullest public account of Haspel's role in the questioning of Zubaydah. The material we reviewed shows she played a far more direct role than has been understood.
Asked to respond to the specific allegations about Haspel, a CIA spokesperson said only that, "Nearly every piece of the reporting that you are seeking comment on is incorrect in whole or in part." We reminded the spokesperson that many of the specifics came from books written by former CIA officials and cleared before publication by the agency. He declined to say which aspects of the reporting, or those books, were incorrect but did provide a long list of testimonials to Haspel's skills from present and former intelligence officials.
Critics of Haspel's appointment argue that her past is particularly relevant in light of Trump's shifting statements on the value of torturing terror suspects. During the campaign, former CIA director Michael Hayden said in response to Trump's endorsement of torture that "if any future president wants (the) CIA to waterboard anybody, he'd better bring his own bucket." After he won the election, Trump said he was persuaded by his secretary of defense, James Mattis, that torture is not effective. The Trump administration recently drafted and then withdrew a draft executive order asking American intelligence agencies to consider resuming "enhanced interrogation" of terror suspects.
Much of the material we reviewed for this story referred to Haspel only by her title, chief of base, or "COB." Three former government officials, however, said the person described by that title in books and declassified documents was Haspel. As chief of base, these officials said, Haspel signed many of the cables sent from Thailand to CIA headquarters recounting Zubaydah's questioning. The declassified versions of those documents redact the name of the official who sent them.
One declassified cable, among scores obtained by the American Civil Liberties Union in a lawsuit against the architects of the "enhanced interrogation" techniques, says that chief of base and another senior counterterrorism official on scene had the sole authority power to halt the questioning.
She never did so, records show, watching as Zubaydah vomited, passed out, and urinated on himself while shackled. During one waterboarding session, Zubaydah lost consciousness and bubbles began gurgling from his mouth. Medical personnel on the scene had to revive him. Haspel allowed the most brutal interrogations by the CIA to continue for nearly three weeks even though, as the cables sent from Thailand to the agency's headquarters repeatedly stated, "subject has not provided any new threat information or elaborated on any old threat information."
At one point, Haspel spoke directly with Zubaydah, accusing him of faking symptoms of physical distress and psychological breakdown. In a scene described in a book written by one of the interrogators, the chief of base came to his cell and "congratulated him on the fine quality of his acting." According to the book, the chief of base, who was identified only by title, said: "Good job! I like the way you're drooling; it adds realism. I'm almost buying it. You wouldn't think a grown man would do that."
Haspel was sent by the chief of the CIA's counterterrorism section, Jose Rodriquez, the "handpicked warden of the first secret prison the CIA created to handle al-Qaeda detainees," according to a little-noticed recent article in Reader Supported News by John Kiriakou, a former CIA counterterrorism officer. In his memoir, Hard Measures, Rodriquez refers to a "female chief of base" in Thailand but does not name her.
Kirakou provided more details about her central role. "It was Haspel who oversaw the staff," at the Thai prison, including James Mitchell and Bruce Jessen, the two psychologists who "designed the torture techniques and who actually carried out torture on the prisoners," he wrote.
Kiriakou pleaded guilty in 2012 to releasing classified information about waterboarding and the torture of detainees, and served 23 months in prison.
The CIA officials in Thailand understood that the methods they were using could kill Zubaydah and said that should that happen, they would cremate his body. If he survived questioning, Haspel sought assurances that "the subject will remain in isolation and incommunicado for the remainder of his life."
So far, that promise has been kept. Zubaydah is currently incarcerated at Guantanamo. His lawyers filed a court action in 2008 seeking his release, but the federal judges overseeing the case have failed to issue any substantive rulings.
Zubaydah was seized in a raid in Pakistan in late March of 2002, during which he suffered life-threatening bullet wounds in his leg and groin. The CIA had long been hunting for Zubaydah, who had worked as what one former government official described as "administrator" at a terrorist training camp in Afghanistan. The camp was started by the CIA during the Soviet occupation, was not under the control of al-Qaeda or Osama bin Laden, the official said, but Zubaydah had on occasion supplied false passports and money to al-Qaeda operatives.
American doctors saved Zubaydah's life, and after he was stable enough he was drugged, gagged, trussed, and blindfolded, and put on a CIA charter flight. In order to avoid being traced, the plane flew around the world, stopping in several places, including Morocco and Brazil, before landing in Thailand.
While still hospitalized, Zubaydah was interrogated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, led by Ali Soufan, an Arabic speaker. According to Soufan, Zubaydah, who was generally cooperative, provided the FBI interrogators with valuable intelligence on the overall structure of al-Qaeda.
His information also confirmed what the CIA already believed, that Khalid Sheik Mohammed was the mastermind of the 9/11 attacks. A talkative sort who expressed a willingness to cooperate, Zubaydah gave the FBI information that led to the arrest of Jose Padilla for plotting to detonate bombs in the U.S. Zubaydah, who was born in Palestine, said that, while he believed in jihad, the 9/11 attacks were not justified because they killed innocent civilians.
CIA officials were convinced that he knew about plots in America, and with the horror of 9/11 still fresh, the agency was determined to prevent another attack. A month after Zubaydah was captured, Haspel drafted a cable titled "Turning Up the Heat in AZ Interrogations."
Soon after, he was put into isolation for 45 days, kept awake with loud music, and doused with cold water. During this time, the ALEC team at CIA headquarters, which was assigned to find Osama bin Laden, sent questions to Thailand for the team to ask Zubaydah; they went unasked, and unanswered, because he was in isolation.
The FBI and CIA clashed over whether or not Zubaydah was fully cooperating on the subject of possible future attacks. The agency's view prevailed, and counterterrorism officials sought permission for harsher measures.
In late July, the CIA team conducted a "dress rehearsal ... which choreographed moving Abu Zubaydah (Subject) in and out of the large and small confinement boxes, as well as use of the water board," Haspel notified Washington.
A few days later, she wrote, "Team is ready to move to the next phase of interrogations immediately upon receipt of approvals/authorization from ALEC/Headquarters. It is our understanding that DOJ/Attorney General approvals for all portions of the next phase, including the water board, have been secured, but that final approval is in the hands of the policy makers."
By this time, the source on whom the CIA had based its assessment that Zubaydah was No. 3 or 4 in the al-Qaeda organization had recanted his testimony, according to the Senate Intelligence Committee Report on Torture released in 2014. The agency would ultimately conclude that Zubaydah was not even a member of al-Qaeda.
"So it begins," a medical officer on Haspel's team wrote on the morning of August 4th, 2002.
Later that year, when journalists began asking the CIA and the White House about a "black site," in Thailand, the CIA rushed to close it. Zubaydah was again drugged, trussed, blindfolded, and put on another secret CIA flight to another black site, this time in Poland.
Haspel moved to cover up the agency's operations at the Thai base. The chief of base told the security officer "to burn everything that he could in preparation for sanitizing the black site," Mitchell wrote in his book, Enhanced Interrogation: Inside the Minds and Motives of the Islamic Terrorists Trying to Destroy America, which was published late last year.
According to Mitchell's account, the security officer asked the chief of base whether he should include the tapes; he was told to hold off until "she" could check with Washington.
She was told to retain them. A few years later when she was back in Washington and chief of staff to the director of operations for counterterrorism, Jose Rodriquez, the man who had sent her to Thailand, she continued to lobby for destruction of the tapes.
"My chief of staff drafted a cable approving the action we had been trying to accomplish for so long," Rodriquez writes in his memoir. "The cable left nothing to chance. It even told them how to get rid of the tapes. They were to use an industrial-strength shredder to do the deed."
Without approval from the White House or Justice Department, Rodriquez gave the order.
In a twist of fate, destroying the tapes drew more outside scrutiny of the program. Disclosure of the shredding prompted the Senate Intelligence Committee to begin its long-running examination of the torture program. The result was a 7,000-page report that drew on thousands of highly classified cables relating to the Bush administration's rendition and detention program and concluded torture was not effective.